I've been creating and publishing content types for a small reorganization project on a SharePoint 2010 Intranet. What I found in only one of the site collections, my newly created content type was not available even after publishing it and manually running the relevant timer jobs: Content Type Hub and Content Type Subscriber. I also found the Content Type Publishing from the Site Collection Administration section is missing!
This site was created using the Blank Site template (#STS1). All others were using the Team site and they were able to benefit from the publishing of content types without any issues.
The blank site template, for some reason is lacking one feature - TaxonomyFeatureStapler.
Now I thought can I afford the luxury to recreate the whole site just because of that? Absolutely not... so I looked around for ways to workaround this:
stsadm -o activatefeature -id 73EF14B1-13A9-416b-A9B5-ECECA2B0604C -url http://toplevelsiteurl
That worked great.
There's also another solution, described in Bill Crider's blog here, but I haven't tested it.